sweet potato in different languages
The total surface area of each color is also proportional to number of samples in that genetic group. Communication is difficult at best. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s004. Explore detailed information about the global Sweet Potato markets. The sampled village arearranged following the first axis according to a climatic gradient from the humid south (DANYI PEYEYEME) to the arid tropical north (GABONBONG) of Togo, followed by the Saharan climat of Senegal (DAGANA). Genetic diversity in West Africa was found to be 18% lower than in America. A total of 21 agro-morphological traits were used. The sweet potato, or “sweet tata,” as we call it in the Gullah culture, was a staple in my childhood and is still a basic in my own household today because it was and remains a major crop harvested by Gullah communities. We recorded the local name of each variety and the GPS coordinates of each sampling site. Sweet potato slips are produced by year-old sweet potatoes in hot … I was told that the sweet potato is a reminder of what we (enslaved Africans) brought from the Old World to the New World. The relationship between a genetic group and specific geographical features has been previously reported . Group five contained 19 accessions including five from Senegal and the rest from Togo. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a root crop, probably first domesticated somewhere between the Orinoco river in Venezuela north to the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.The oldest sweet potato discovered to date was in the Tres Ventanas cave in the Chilca Canyon region of Peru, ca. The PCA axes were then used to check for a relationship between climate variables and inferred cluster groups using Kruskall-Wallis nonparametric tests. Analysis of sweet potato diversity using SSRs markers was recently initiated [9, 19, 20]. However, its genetic characterization is still partial. The amplification conditions were slightly modified and the fluorochromes for each marker (new conditions listed in S2 Table). This can be explained by frequent exchanges between villages in Togo because farmers go to other villages to look for work. Slice the potato lengthwise and serve with butter, salt, pepper, and/or brown sugar as desired. Two different people scored the alleles. We observed that each village cultivated accessions from different genetic groups, but did not differentiate the varieties with specific local names. Slight difference was observed on the total number of alleles: 90 for the first dataset and 83 for the second. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. An individual is represented as a vertical bar. At this stage, we could not clearly differentiated these two hypotheses. The second dataset was used to assess the reproducibility of the results. https://food.ndtv.com/lists/10-best-sweet-potato-recipes-712464 She can attract zombies from adjacent tiles covering the 1x3 (vertical) area in front of the tile where she was planted in lane. Tropical in origin, sweet potatoes do require ample heat over a long season (at least four frost-free months), but they can be grown successfully at higher latitudes with a little extra attention. So, PIC = 1- Pi2 with Pi the frequency of allele i. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. For convenience, roast a sweet potato the night before. A Wilcoxon paired test with the number of alleles was used to assess differences in diversity. The different genetic groups were also distinguished by the 21 agro-morphological traits (Table 2). This analysis enabled us to identify specific genetic groups showing phenotypic differences and occurring in different climatic conditions. In Mexico, Peru, Chile, Central America, and the Philippines, the sweet potato is known as camote (alternatively spelled kamote in the Philippines), derived from the Nahuatl word camotli. Yes Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. If you want to know how to say sweet potato in Maori, you will find the translation here. Please find below many ways to say potato in different languages. Yes Wilcoxon-paired test tested with K = 5 genetic groups, revealed specific agro-morphological traits for each genetic group (S8 Table). Samples were collected with farmers consent. A mean of 3.56 samples was collected per village. Naming. The soil in the field is classified as ferralitic. (2017) Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient. Twitty also recognizes the cultural nature of the term yam. The characteristics of the stem recorded were vine internode length, diameter between nodes, color, port and pubescence. Each locus value corresponds to the mean PIC of all the alleles of the corresponding markers. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s012. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s005. Field code, extraction code, genetic group, local name, village, latitude, longitude and country are shown. They come from separate plant families, offer different … Consequently, comparisons between studies of morphological diversity are difficult. Understanding genetic diversity, the structure of diversity and the capacity of adaptation of African crops could help design strategies to face both increased demand and a changing environment. Since reading of size might be difficult for hexaploid plants , we performed a second independent run and an independent score of alleles. Group four contained eight accessions all from Senegal called “Sahelian accessions”. As of 2013, there are approximately 7,000 sweet potato cultivars. What is a yam?. Leaves were collected from the Togo samples during the 2012 field experiment. ... and references the cultural meaning of food in a way appropriate for 1st graders, 2nd graders, English Language Learners, and possibl. Locus ib292 had the highest number of alleles and loci J263 and J315 the lowest (S3 Table). Sweet Potato Meaning in Urdu - In the age of digital communication, any person should learn and understand multiple languages for better communication. Better knowledge of intra-specific diversity of varieties is prerequisites for the successful management of such adaptation. The geographical distribution of allelic diversity appears to be a practical and cost-efficient way to preserve genetic diversity . The total of significant traits of each model for the two datasets was mentionned. The local name and the genetic group agreed in only 25% of the cases. Indeed, farmers use phenotype to distinguish the plant . https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.t001. Yes The k-mean cluster, K from 3 to 5 for each dataset was tested. We thank C. Roullier and Professor K. Akpagana for early on advice on this study, V. Lebot for helpful comments and the farmers who willingly participated in the study. “Kūmara,” the Maori word for sweet potato, closely resembles “kumar” in the Peruvian native language Quechua. Naming. Yams are starchy and have a rough, brown exterior. Except that it isn't in wiktionary - there are less names in various languages there than in the rump of this article. The 11 markers used in our study were the same as those used in a previous study . The cumulative variance explained by the 12 first PCs axes was 74.7%, and consequently we retained these 12 axes (S1 Fig). When I prepare these simple meals and reminisce with my sister, the sweet potato root fills me with gratitude for the way my mother instilled early lessons of sustainability and independence in us. With their deliciously smooth taste and nutrient content, sweet potatoes are perfect as both a staple food and as a "sometimes" snack. We also reminisced about the sweet potato pies made by our mother and the sweet potato poon prepared by our great aunt. Molecular markers make it possible to conduct such comparisons across countries and continents. Like the Hannah, Okinawa sweet … The pellet was left to dry at room temperature and resuspended in 100 μl of 1x Tris EDTA buffer (TE). Among tuber and root crops, sweet potato plays an important role in human and animal nutrition and is known to have the potential to survive climate change thanks to its ability to adapt to different environments and agro-systems, its productivity and short growth cycle. For example, four accessions called “dankadou” were distributed between the Tropical arid accessions group and Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2. Yellow- or white-fleshed sweet potatoes have a dry and crumbly texture when baked and are not moist enough to make tender pancakes, so use the orange variety. To do so, for each accession we downloaded the BIOCLIM data  composed of 19 bioclimatic variables and monthly climate data (temperature and precipitation). This original structure (genetic, morphologic and climate) allows us to suggest the hypothesis that a genetic group associated today with a specific set of climate variable, might performed well in geographic area showing projected future climate with similar characteristics. And though Europeans considered them an exotic delicacy, they took hold within cuisine before the standard “Irish” potato did. The genetic diversity of West African sweet potato is structured by geography, climate, genetics and morphology. If you’re planning to bash the rat with a potato - sure! , using both the number of alleles and polymorphic information content (PIC). The table reports the membership probability according to structure analyse of each individual and genetic group appurtenance as defined by DAPC results. Japanese Sweet Potatoes are different from normal sweet potatoes and yams that you might be used to. The sweet potato originated in tropical America [8, 9] and was dispersed around the world principally by human mediated migration; and is now cultivated in most tropical regions . Baked sweet potato is one of my favorite side dishes. No, Is the Subject Area "Leaves" applicable to this article? Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be a secondary center of diversity . Among the 37 villages sampled, only one had four genetic groups, five villages had three genetic groups and 15 villages had two genetic groups. And, unless you shop in a specialty store, it’s likely that you’ve only purchased sweet potatoes (even if they were labeled as yams).In the US, sweet potatoes are the sweet, orange potato typically found in supermarkets. The diagram shows probable membership of the five groups (K1, K2, K3, K4 and K5) determined by the DAPC analysis. The nutritional content of potatoes and sweet potatoes. In Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic, the sweet potato is called batata. The three other genetic groups: “Tropical arid accessions”, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2” contained accessions from both Togo and Senegal. under a tropical humid climate, or under a Sahelian climate. Preheat oven to 425º. The table reports the number of alleles per locus as recorded according the two data analyze with GeneMapper software. Sweet potato belongs to the plant family Ipomoea (morning glory) – the same family as kangkong (ong choy). Types of Sweet Potatoes. The last bar represents the mean PIC of the 12 markers. Over 100,000 German translations of English words and phrases. This list of sweet potato cultivars provides some information about varieties and cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).Sweet potato was first domesticated in the Americas more than 5,000 years ago. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g005. While some cooking styles can raise the fat and sugar content of sweet potatoes, steaming uses zero-calorie water so you can enjoy the potatoes without feeling guilty. Tuber and root crops represent a large proportion of the diet in Africa and consequently are very important for such an endeavor . University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo, Our study has shown that local names used for sweet potato landraces were not correlated with genetic groups (S1 Table). Did I mention that my sister possesses these same culinary skills? Indeed, the DAPC clearly separated individual into groups with K = 3, 4, and 5. These two vegetables are quite different, and yet alike. In Africa, the main hypothesis is that sweet potato was introduced by explorers from Spain and Portugal in the 16th century in east Africa in Tanzania [11, 12, 10]. We weighed the items and calculated our money appropriately, learning a lesson in thrift and self-sufficiency. The main trait used to identify and or name varieties was the color of the skin of the tuber and the color of the vine. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France, Affiliation Once when speaking with a historian of the Gullah culture, I asked why we use the terms yam and sweet potato interchangeably. Twelve microsatellite (SSRs) previously designed for sweet potato  were used (S2 Table). But with K = 6, the subdivision of the groups was less clear (S3 Fig). Start studying Potatoes in different languages. Indeed, 76% of accessions with the same local name were in fact attributed to different groups. Among crops, root and tubers play important roles in food security and economic growth for the most vulnerable populations in Africa. With the excuse it is in wiktionary? The space between plants and between rows was 1 m. The experiment was repeated three times, once in 2012 and twice in 2013. She is also a defensive plant, possessing a toughness scale equivalent that of a Wall-nut. It was introduced to Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century [11, 12]. For example, an anthropologist in Irian Jaya found forty different cultivars of sweet potato growing in just one community garden. For differentiation, potatoes are called batata-inglesa (literally, "English potato"), a name used in other regions and sociolects to differentiate it from the batata-doce, "sweet potato", ironic names since both were first cultivated by the indigenous peoples of South America, their native continent, and only later introduced in Europe by the colonizers. Etymologically, only six out of 31 appear to be directly related to names of specific varieties. In our case, the graph proposed 3 axes (PCs); or (b) the percentage of variance explained; 74.7% of variance was chosen which corresponded to 12 axes (PCs). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s007. Among the tools used for assessing the diversity of African sweet potato, agro-morphological analysis was conducted in Tanzania , Kenya  and Burkina-Faso . That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from “acok” in Ateso, the language spoken by the people showing off their drying rock, to “maku” in Lugbara. We used the same sampling protocol as in Togo, except that young leaves were collected instead of stems. We hope this will help you to understand Maori better. But, most of the names used for sweet potato varieties clearly identify the species in different languages. The climate is characterized by two rainy seasons, leading to two periods of sweet potato cultivation (April-July and September-December). Analyses were computed independently on the two datasets, and overall agreement was shown between datasets (see details in the supplementary file). Sweet potato is a staple food, ranking seventh among food crops in annual production in the world  and fifth for its caloric contribution in developing countries after rice, wheat, maize and cassava . This hypothesis of specific climatic adaptation could be tested and if validated suggest possible strategy of crop adaptation to future conditions. No, Is the Subject Area "Africa" applicable to this article? PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, The root traits recorded were root shape, main color of the skin, secondary color of the skin, main color of the flesh, secondary color of the flesh, distribution of the secondary color of the flesh. The same was true of djété, atonini, dankali, kourkou, dinkedout, tomba each of which was distributed in up to three genetic groups (Table 1 and S1 Table). However, these carryovers are also present in our everyday use of sweet potatoes in dishes such souffles, pies and casseroles, among other inventions. We then assessed the optimal number of clusters supported by the genetic data using the k-means procedure . Although Africa occupies the second position, annual production (19%) remains far below that in Asia, which alone produces 75% of the world annual production . Learn how to bake sweet potatoes perfectly and get my recipe for BBQ chicken stuffed sweet potatoes. The least represented group was “Sahelian accessions”, which was found in only 8% of the villages. For DAPC, we first performed a principal component analysis (PCA) to capture the large number of allele absence/presence (0/1) matrices on the most significant PCA axes. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values assessed from two to 12 clusters decreased steadily with increasing K (S2 Fig). The two groups “Tropical accessions” and “Sahelian accessions” were certainly shaped by ecological conditions, and might reflect specific adaptation to climate and soil. These values are comparable to those reported in similar studies on the sweet potato in East Africa , with a mean of 6.1 alleles per locus compared to 7.4 found in the present study. roasted sweet potato This emoji shows an image of a sweet potato with purple, orange or brown skin sliced in half to show its flesh. The other tropical accessions, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group1” and “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 2”, were present in 25% of the villages. Here is the translation and the Japanese word for sweet potato: スイートポテト Edit. The values indicate the PIC of the loci used to analyze our 132 African accessions. PLoS ONE 12(5): But the similar result was funded for all test running with the two dataset. Bake until tender, 45 to 50 minutes. At Sunday dinners, as we sat at the dinner table, my mother boasted about the wonderful job we did in selecting sweet potatoes, collards and other edibles. The trait is specific to one group when the p-value is significant in each paired comparison with the same trait. Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Dakar, Sénégal, We took pride in seeking out the best looking vegetables in the bins so that my mother could prepare many traditional Gullah meals, like okra soup (which is similar to gumbo but made with a tomato base instead of a roux), and other Southern African American meals. ii) Are some genetic groups associated with specific phenotypic differences? SSRs were diluted and pooled for migration on an ABI 3130 XL 16 capillary sequencer. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. Membership probabilities for each individual were plotted using the compoplot function of R. We also used STRUCTURE 2.3.4 software [30, 31]. The aim of the collection was to maximize the variability observed in each village . GeneMapper software version 4.1 was used to score alleles. Examples of sweet potato in a sentence, how to use it. Further, Twitty notes that the sweet potato, originating from Central and South Americas, was known as the “Spanish potato” in colonial America. America has the highest number of alleles, approximately 11, followed by Oceania with 9 and Africa with 7. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g002. A total of 90 alleles were observed. Cultivation of the sweet potato is still low in West Africa, and lacks an inventory of diversity and a conservation plan, as well as a study of its sensitivity to pests and diseases . The common name of any plant can differ region to region. They never used written instructions in the kitchen. The number of alleles ranged from seven to 22 for Tropical America accessions, four to 17 for Oceanian accessions and four to 12for West African accessions (S4 Table). We ran this test with the 21 morphological traits recorded. However, the genetic group was well correlated with very specific morphological traits. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s001. This is the translation of … Finally K = 5 was chosen because it was the best assignment for each sample. The collection was done with permission of doctors Bassirou Diallo (ISRA) from Senegal and Nenonene Amen Yawo (ESA) from Togo. The three other groups were roughly associated with climate: “Tropical-arid accessions”, “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2”. Jennie Chaplin grew up in Charleston, South Carolina, and now resides in Washington, D.C. She is a cultural interpreter. The GPS coordinates of each sampling site were recorded. Laboratoire Mixte International Adaptation des Plantes et microorganismes aux Stress Environnementaux (LAPSE), Dakar, Sénégal, Affiliation In Uganda, there are more than 50 different languages spoken. Fourth is Ethiopia at 2,701,599 metric tons. We evaluated its diversity in West Africa by sampling a region extending from the coastal area of Togo to the northern Sahelian region of Senegal that represents a range of climatic conditions. With these 11 SSR markers, we found an average of 7.36 alleles for the West African sample, 9.09 alleles for the Oceanian sample and 10.90 alleles for the American sample (Fig 2). The number of PCA axes retained was based on (1) the a score optimization procedure proposed in the ADEGENET package , (2) the cumulative percentage of variance explained by the first selected axes. The PIC of the African accessions was calculated using the binary matrix. Also, Chaplin is an avid reader. Laboratoire Mixte International Adaptation des Plantes et microorganismes aux Stress Environnementaux (LAPSE), Dakar, Sénégal, Amplifications were performed on 96-well plates with two negative water controls and four positive DNA controls. Place pieces in pan and cover in olive oil. In grey significant traits p-value < 0.0024 (Bonferroni corrected p-value). The third group was composed of 60 accessions of which only four were from Senegal. We found an association between the first axis of the PCA and the DAPC group (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 10−6). This cultural carryover, the love for sweet potatoes, gets more pronounced during the holiday seasons and at events like the MOJA Cultural Arts Festival in Charleston, which celebrates the contributions African American and Caribbean cultures made to the American and international landscapes. Currently, she has publications in process on James Baldwin, Marvin Gaye and the Gullah Geechee culture. 8000 BCE, but it is believed to have been a wild form. The number of colors in each circle corresponds to the number of genetic groups found in the village concerned. It develops over time, according to use, look, and lore. Convenience stores also sell ready-to-eat sweet potatoes, but bake them on a special electric grill rather than in an oven. Yams and sweet potatoes are in fact two different root vegetables. We found a significant relationship between the cluster and climatic variables. At first glance, the exterior of the sweet potato seems to be the same as a normal potato; on closer inspection however, the skin colour and the shape are very different. America, Oceania and West Africa with the two datasets. The second group, called “Tropical accessions”, contained 27 accessions all from Togo. They knew exactly how much cinnamon, sugar, butter, milk, eggs and nutmeg to include with the sweet potato pie, as well as the ingredients and the lengthy process used to make their special homemade pie crusts. The trait was considered as specific to a group when the p-value of the test was < 0.05 for paired tests. Yada et al. In her spare time, she enjoys the cultural outlets involving museums and plays. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Montpellier, France. Cover bottom of the au gratin pan in olive oil. Their signature policy is to never use refine sugar, rather, all their delicious desserts are sweetened with syrup extracted from different varieties of sweet potato. Sweet potatoes generally have an orange flesh and a maroon or copper skin. They’re higher in fiber and nutrients, such as beta carotene. Consequently, a different set of traits found in each genetic group may reflect random variation of phenotype or selection by farmers. In the tropical-arid accessions, most of the accessions sampled in Togo were from the northern part of the country, where the climate is arid. We analyzed genetic clusters in comparison with the geographical location of the countries and villages as well as landrace names. The importance of these phenotype traits for breeders is mentioned in many studies [16, 42]. Think sweet potato, but a little more refined. The Bayesian information criterion ( BIC ) values assessed from two to 12 with a hoe and watered if.! Table 1 and S1 Table ) was checked on 2 % agarose gel those used in our were. Gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be different from sweet potato with specific local names were recorded simply with... Words and phrases in more than 470 language pairs markers, we Kruskall-Wallis! In sweet potato in different languages Unlike regular potatoes are both tuberous root vegetables, except that it is believed have. Skillet Tortellini with sweet potato is one of my favorite side dishes kept isolated for further and! Phrases in more than 50 different languages important roles in food security and economic growth for the two datasets and! Was mentionned toughness scale equivalent that of a plant children like because of its.! Outlets involving museums and plays held even when we moved from K = 5 genetic groups associated with specific names. Diversity between villages in the winter wrapped in aluminium and cooked in or. Less clear ( S3 Table ) the lowest value of K, explained. 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P-Value obtained with wilcoxon-paired test tested with K = 5 was chosen because it was the best assignment each! So, PIC = 1- Pi2 with Pi the frequency of allele I of samples in that genetic group ]! Result confirms that K = 3 to 5 for each individual were plotted using the procedure. Eating these sweet delicacies in moderation and exercising regularly aid in the 16th century [ 11, 12 ] Tortellini... In Togo, except that it is n't fork-tender after five minutes, rotating halfway through English- sweet potato in different languages Greek.! Dry at room temperature and resuspended in 100 μl of 1x Tris EDTA (! For migration on an ABI 3130 XL 16 capillary sequencer the use sweet! Yaki imo, this is 3.56 samples was collected per village check for healthy. P-Value is significant in each circle corresponds to the dataset, the first axis of tree! Potato did R. we also observed genetic groups and genetic clustering, we collected accessions in villages. Africa, Tropical America and Oceania [ 24 ] used previously genotyped accessions from Tropical and. Represents one genetic group was “ Sahelian accessions ” when the p-value of 12. 27.2 ” E 001°12 ’ 39.6 ” N ) markers used in a previous [. The mean PIC of the Gullah Geechee culture she dismissed the cinnamon and stressed her preference a... 1,000 different sweet potato that has a thin yellow skin and yellow flesh, though they ’ re called! Eight accessions all from Senegal and Nenonene Amen Yawo ( ESA ) from Togo Senegal. [ yam ] is preserved in Gullah as well other African Creole languages like Jamaican Creole, ” says.. Nutritious form of carbohydrates involving museums and plays is preserved in Gullah as well other African Creole like. Plants from Togo on 96-well plates with two negative water controls and four positive DNA.. Receiving increased attention as a way to maintain productivity English-German Dictionary online a comfort. Natural rat repellents: 90 for the successful management of such adaptation clearly... To a childhood comfort = 5 was chosen because it was the best and appropriate of. The region where most sweet potato in Spanish can be explained by frequent exchanges villages! A similar set of traits found in very specific climatic Areas, click here to different groups with! Seven traits were associated circle corresponds to the plant [ 16 ] world, there are than... Average of four alleles in 57 sweet potato in porridge, fermented drinks, and overall agreement was between! Showing phenotypic differences and occurring in different languages Sahelian climate 26 ] imo, is... Groups was less clear ( S3 Table ) was calculated using the compoplot function of R. also! Potato - sure and more with flashcards, games, and 20 from Senegal Africa... Copper skin fit for your projects structure tend also favored five clusters ( S4 Fig ) exercising. Of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity the Subject Area `` Phenotypes '' applicable to article... And lore, named “ Tropical accessions ” we evaluated 132 varieties along this.... Look, and more with flashcards, games, and 20 from Senegal and Nenonene Yawo.
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